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Man has for a long time searched means of fighting pain, by administration of plant extracts such as poppy seed, jimson weed, henbane, mandrake and alcohol. These substances were given in the form of cataplasms, potions or clysters. Somniferous sponges, applied on the face, were known since Antiquity and have been in use in some countries up to the 13th century. Surgery and pain were inseparable till mid 19th century. Indications for surgery were few, even though some patients could benefit from these sedative drugs. The anesthetic properties of ether and nitrous oxide (laughing gas), known since the 18th century, were only recognized in the 19th century. William Morton, a dentist, was the first to successfully provide general anesthesia with ether in 1846 in Boston. News spread to England shortly afterwards. On the European continent, the first use of ether was due to 2 Belgian surgeons. Next came chloroform as novel anesthetic. They were administered via either a gauze or a mask by the general practitioner, a medical student or a nurse. Unlike England, the use of these drugs for obstetrical anesthesia (called anesthesia "a la reine", alluding to Queen Victoria who benefited from chloroform during childbirth) was never very popular in Belgium. Since the years 1880, the use of cocaine, then of novocaine allowed to perform local anesthesia, then local nerve blocks and spinal anesthesia, installed by the surgeon prior to operating. Since then, surgery experienced rapid progress, Belgium included. During the 1914-1918 first World War, these advances saved many human lives. When general anesthesia was necessary, it was cared for by another physician or a nurse. The interwar period did not see significant advances in anesthesia, except in intravenous anesthesia with barbiturates, appeared in the late 1930's. Intra- and postoperative complications were frequent. Apart from sulfonamides, antibiotics were non-existent. During the war 1940-45, there was no progress in anesthesia and surgery in Belgium. After the Liberation, Belgian doctors specifically trained in anesthesia by the British army, or elsewhere in non-occupied countries, will form the core of a new specialty, "anesthesiology-reanimation", who will fight to be recognized as a specialty in itself in Belgium. It will beneficiate from--and largely contribute to--the technical and scientific advances in the medical field. Initially based on clinical symptoms, monitoring and care of operated patients, during and after operation, will beneficiate from modern monitoring and other technical apparatus, which will allow the most audacious surgical technical performances in all domains. Postoperative and intensive care units will appear in the years 1960's. Nowadays, anesthesiologists work in all hospital settings, and also organize One-day clinics and Pain clinics. In Belgium, the quality of the clinical and scientific training of anesthesiologists is widely acknowledged, as well as clinical and experimental research.


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Two South African firms have announced plans to build a new copper sulphate plant that will beneficiate recycled subsea telecommunication cables into high-purity copper sulphate for export across sub-Saharan Africa.

Thakadu Resources and Mertech Marine announced on Thursday that the firms had agreed to a joint venture to beneficiate copper recycled from subsea telecommunication cables and to establish a new high-purity copper sulphate plant in Gqeberha, formerly Port Elizabeth.

Chemical pretreatments have been used to beneficiate conversion processes, inducln pyrolysis. Nitration has not been one of them. Pyrolyzing a nitrated coal would, hopefully, rapidly devolatilize the coal and break up the matrix into more commercially usable products. The nitration procedure developed by The Standard Oil Company minimizes oxidation of the coal, reducing the adverse affects of such a treatment.

The objective of the paper is founded on a very current topic and of real interest. Using content analysis, through a descriptive study research, this study aims at identifying the content of the legal security principle and the way in which the courts in Romania, the public authorities achieve a proper application of this European principle. For this purpose, it was achieved an analysis of specific objectives aiming at, in particular, the requirements of legal security principle and the way in which they manifest in the national law. We appreciate that, although it does not beneficiate of an express assignment in the Romanian legislation, being a creation of jurisprudence, the legal security principle is in the current context, a fundamental principle of state law, which should give every citizen the opportunity to evolve into a secured, predictable legal environment.

The phosphate that is used to make fertilizers continues to be sourced from mining, and new deposits are becoming increasingly more complex to beneficiate. Clariant Mining Solutions works closely with engineering houses and mining companies around the globe to develop novel reagents to solve the unique challenges of each deposit. In this presentation, some examples of the solutions developed by Clariant Mining Solutions will be highlighted.

A product from Mineral Engineering Processes (MEP) called the TBS Hydrosizer is used in the mining and mineral process industries throughout the world to separate materials, remove contaminants and beneficiate mineral particles that are generally less than 5 mm in size. 041b061a72


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